Shadow puppetry is a form of opera in which images are cut out of animal skins or cardboard, and the cut images are illuminated by lights to perform a story. Its popularity is extremely wide, almost in all provinces and regions of the country, and due to the different voices performed in various places, a variety of shadow puppets have been formed, such as the Huaxian shadow puppetry in Shaanxi, the Huayin old cavity shadow puppetry, the A Gongqiang shadow puppetry, and the Xianbanqiang shadow puppetry. , Huanxian Daoqing Shadow Play in Gansu, Xiaoyi Wanwanqiang Shadow Play in Shanxi, Tangshan Shadow Play in Hebei, Shadow Play in Southern Hebei, Haining Shadow Play in Zhejiang, Jianghan Plain Shadow Play in Hubei, Lufeng Shadow Play in Guangdong, Fuzhou Shadow Play and Ling Play in Liaoning Source shadow puppetry and so on. If you want to see the shadow play, you can search “shadow puppetry a chinese folk art” and use flvto youtube to mp3 to download it.
The formation time of shadow puppetry has not yet been verified, but according to the records of the Southern Song Dynasty veteran Meng Hualu in Tokyo, it has matured and prevailed in the Song Dynasty until the end of the Song Dynasty. The shadow play artists in the Bianliang House in Tokyo include Dong Fifteen, Zhao Qi, Cao Baoyi, and other 9 people. There is a “Shadow Play Picture” in the Jin Dynasty fresco in the Wenshu Hall of Yanshan Temple, Fanzhi, Shanxi, which vividly shows the actual situation of Shanxi shadow puppet performance at that time. After the development of the four historical periods of Song, Jin, Yuan, and Ming, the popular shadow puppets all over the country showed a prosperous situation in the Qing Dynasty.
Although there are many types of shadow puppets, the difference is mainly in the vocal tone and repertoire. As for the filmmakers’ production and performance techniques, they are similar. The shadow man generally shaves the cowhide or donkey skin or sheep skin first, and then processes it into a translucent shape and then engraves the color. The carving and drawing process is exquisite and the shape is realistic. The head, body, limbs, and other parts of the shadow man are generally silhouettes. The head is equipped with a helmet and the body and limbs are all dressed in costumes. After painting, they are baked and flattened with fire bricks. During the performance, insert the head of the filmmaker into the body, connect the body and limbs, and install three bamboo skewers on the body and hands at the same time to operate the performance. In addition to the character modeling, some masonry props, tables and chairs, and scenery modeling are also carved to match the performance.
The props are mainly shadow windows, commonly known as “Liangzi”, which are generally 3 feet high and 5 feet wide. The highest is no more than 4 feet and the width is less than 6 feet. The screen is made of white paper for a single operation. The second is an oil lamp, which is used to map shadows and perform actions.
Shadow puppetry is an important traditional folk art in our country. In recent years, due to the impact of modern film and television art, the audience and performance market is decreasing. Many shadow puppets are facing the danger of extinction and urgently need rescue and protection.
Huayin Laoqiang is a kind of shadow puppet drama based on the local folk storytelling art in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. For a long time, it has been a family drama of the Zhangjiahu clan in Quandian Village, Huayin County (only the original family name is passed on, and no outsiders are passed on).
Its voice has an upright, high-pitched, majestic and heroic spirit, which sounds quite relevant to the Western Han Dynasty chanting the Great Jiangdong; Luo Yin also introduced the Weishui Boatman’s chant tune, using one person to sing the tune of everyone to help (the folks are called Labo ); The accompaniment music does not need Suona, and the independent clapboard rhythm of the sandal board constitutes the unique strength of the drama, making it rich in historical and cultural value, passed on from generation to generation, and performed for a long time. However, in view of this special situation (family drama) of this drama, it is still in an endangered state on the verge of extinction and urgently needs long-term protection.